Newsletter scientifique #9 - September 2012
The French Office for Science and Technology in Chicago hopes that you enjoyed a great summer and wishes you the best for this coming fall season.
Bio-fuel continues to be a major topic of this newsletter due to the developments over the summer dealing with the severe drought that affected the US. Bio-fuel research is developing into advanced generation of projects that avoid the use of corn. The articles posted show the studies being made to receive new and better results on the renewable energy front. This is because of a feud between food and fuel as farmers and producers battle over price increases and production. Therefore, this issue continues to be devoted to all developments concerning agriculture in the Midwest, the US and France.
Enjoy your read!
Adèle Martial, Scientific attaché
Cécile Camerlynck, Deputy Scientific attaché
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Table of contents
- Science & Technology in the US
- National News
- Revised edition of The Nutrient Requirements of Swine released - July 16th
- Final Rule Provides New Options for Organic Producers and Processors - August 2nd
- USDA Establishes National Watershed Research Network - Sept 10th
- Momentum builds to overhaul global calorie system - July 31st
- New Resource to Help Protect Consumers from Pathogen Risks in Food and Water - July 31st
- Stanford research confirms health benefits driving consumers to organic - Sept 4th
- USDA’s SuperTracker Diet Planning and Tracking Tool Reaches One Million Registered Users - Sept 6th
- Drought may cause U.S. families to spend more on food in 2013 - Sept 10th
- DOE funds 13 biofuel projects with million - July 26th
- Midwest news
- Helping pigs to digest phosphorus - July 17th
- Scientists develop new carbon accounting method to reduce farmers’ use of nitrogen fertilizer - July 18th
- Nutrient removal with drought-stressed corn - July 26th
- New process doubles production of alternative fuel while slashing costs - Aug 14th
- A Novel Nanobio Catalyst for Biofuels - Aug 27th
- Other states’ news
- Newly Found Genes May Lead to Nematode-Resistant Upland Cotton - July 26th
- Understanding Herbicide Resistance of an Enzyme in the “Pigments of Life” - Aug 16th
- Dairy Researchers Identify Bacterial Spoilers in Milk - July 20th
- Harvard scientists’ breakthrough could stop biofilm formation - August 9th
- Teaching a Microbe to Make Fuel - Sept 3rd
- Immature Switchgrass Could Help Cellulosic Ethanol Industry - Sept 6th
- Solving a Great Biodiesel Mystery - Sept 10th
- Project Thunderbird targets 10 biorefineries producing 550 million gallons of advanced biofuels using tribal lands - Sept 13th
- Water-wise biofuel crop study to alter plants metabolic, photosynthesis process - Sept 13th
- National News
- Science & Technology in France
- At the National level
- Institutions / Universities
- Companies and Research Cluster
- Get in touch with science
A United Nations report will warn of the nutritional time bomb ticking away in the cities of the world that will house more than five billion people by the year 2030. The UN Standing Committee on Nutrition (UNSCN) says fast-growing, low income urban populations are facing a nutritional “double burden”. “While they continue to face undernutrition, cities are now experiencing a double burden of malnutrition with the additional presence of over nutrition and obesity, which is associated with non-communicable diseases like heart disease, diabetes and cancer,” the report says.It will be presented at the UN Habitat 6th World Urban Forum in Naples, Italy, on September 4, 2012. Read more
United States and Canada Sign Amended Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement / Agreement will protect the health of the largest freshwater system in the world - Sept 7th
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Lisa P. Jackson and Canada’s Minister of the Environment Peter Kent today signed the newly amended Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement at a formal ceremony in Washington, D.C. First signed in 1972 and last amended in 1987, the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement is a model of binational cooperation to protect the world’s largest surface freshwater system and the health of the surrounding communities. “Protecting cherished water bodies like the Great Lakes is not only about environmental conservation. It’s also about protecting the health of the families—and the economies—of the local communities that depend on those water bodies for so much, every day,” said Administrator Jackson. “The amended Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement we signed today outlines the strong commitment the U.S. and Canada share to safeguard the largest freshwater system in the world. Our collaborative efforts stand to benefit millions of families on both sides of the border.” Read more
The National Academies of Science recently released the 11th Revised Edition of The Nutrient Requirements of Swine, also known as the Swine NRC. Hans Stein, professor of animal sciences at the University of Illinois, along with nine other swine nutritionists from universities and the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, served on the committee that worked for 18 months to produce the new edition. The volume has been expanded to include 400 pages, 17 chapters, and detailed information on 122 feed ingredients. "It’s a great step forward with lots of new and updated information that will help elevate the industry, and the new publication provides the basis for formulating more accurate diets for pigs," said Stein. "I encourage everyone who is interested in swine nutrition to read the new Swine NRC. I am confident that readers will find the information interesting and helpful." Read more
The National Organic Program published a final rule today that addresses the use of three substances in organic agriculture with specific limitations that would support production and processing of organic products. Effective August 3, the allowance for the use of tetracycline in organic apple and pear production will be extended until Oct. 21, 2014, providing two years for the development of alternatives for fire blight control. Additionally, producers will have the option of using formic acid as a means of controlling varroa and tracheal mites in organic honey bee operations, while processors will have the option of using attapulgite, a nonsynthetic processing aid, for purification of plant and animal oils. Tetracycline has been allowed in organic crop production since 2002 solely to control fire blight, a bacterial disease affecting large populations of apples and pears. Given the high susceptibility of the crops to the disease, and in light of tetracycline’s proven effectiveness to treat it, the National Organic Standards Board recommended that the substance continue to be allowed for a period. However, the expiration date should encourage the development of options for biological controls and also help cultivate fire blight-resistant apple and pear varieties. Read more
The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) today announced that it has established a Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) network from among its existing experimental watersheds and rangelands nationwide to address large-scale, multi-year research, environmental management testing and technology transfer related to the nation’s agricultural ecosystems. ARS is USDA’s chief intramural scientific research agency. "This national network of agro-ecosystem research will aid our understanding and forecasting of the nation’s capacity to provide agricultural and other ecosystem-related goods and services under changing environmental conditions, in addition to society’s changing demands on natural resources," said USDA Deputy Undersecretary for Research, Education, and Economics Ann Bartuska. Read more
A storm in the US over how calories are measured could cross to Europe and an overhaul of the system is long overdue, according to one nutrition expert. The Almond Board of California is petitioning food authorities in the US to reduce the amount of calories allocated to almonds on food labels. This follows a study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition earlier this month, which claims that almonds
should be allocated 20% fewer calories than previously thought. Similar findings were made after US research
into pistachios in 2011. The studies challenge the entire edifice of the
Atwater general factor system for measuring calories by asserting that
aspects such as food structure affect the amount of calories metabolised by the body. As a result, the absolute calorie content listed on food labels bears little relation to the amount of calories an individual absorbs from the food, experts argue. Read more
The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today unveiled a new tool that will help scientists improve the quality of data collected and used to protect consumers from pathogen-related risks in food and water. The tool, a Microbial Risk Assessment (MRA) Guideline, was jointly developed with EPA as a public health collaborative project. "This new tool will help public health scientists target pathogen-related risks and prevent them from harming the public," USDA Under Secretary for Food Safety Dr. Elisabeth Hagen said. "We will continue to enhance the tools at our disposal to keep pace with evolving pathogens in our environment with the ultimate goal of protecting the American public and the food supply." Read more
A review article published September in the Annals of Internal Medicine confirms that consuming organic foods reduces consumers’ exposure to pesticide residues and to bacteria resistant to antibiotics, the Organic Trade Association (OTA) notes. These are among the top reasons consumers cite for choosing to buy organic products. “Consumers seeking to minimize their exposure to pesticide residues will find that foods bearing the USDA Organic label are the gold standard. This is because organic foods have the least chemicals applied in their production and the least residues in the final products,” said Christine Bushway, OTA’s Executive Director and CEO. “And, because organic livestock practices forbid the use of antibiotics, including the routine use of low level antibiotics for growth, organic meat contains less antibiotic-resistant bacteria.” Key conclusions in the meta-analysis conducted by Stanford University researchers reviewing published results from 17 human studies and 223 studies of nutrient and contaminant levels in unprocessed foods such as fruits, vegetables, grains, milk, eggs, chicken, pork, and meat included three main findings:
- Conventional produce has a 30 percent higher risk for pesticide contamination than organic produce.
- Conventional chicken and pork have a 33 percent higher risk for contamination with bacteria resistant to three or more antibiotics than organic products do.
- There is no difference in the food safety risk between organic and conventional foods. Read more
Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack today announced that USDA’s SuperTracker diet planning and tracking tool has reached one million registered users. SuperTracker is a resource to help individuals make healthy lifestyle choices to improve their dietary pattern, maintain a healthy weight, track their level of physical activity, and reduce their risk of chronic disease. "SuperTracker allows Americans to build a healthier diet based on individual needs and personal preferences," said Vilsack. "Overcoming the health and nutrition challenges we face as a nation is critical. I am thrilled that so many people, particularly young people, are taking advantage of this resource to improve their overall health and well-being." Built and maintained by USDA’s Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion (CNPP), SuperTracker is free to use and available at ChooseMyPlate.gov. CNPP continues to update SuperTracker’s features based on user feedback, including:
- Updated food and physical activity databases that allow users to track foods and activities as accurately as possible;
- An enhancement to allow users to set a personal calorie goal using the My Top 5 Goals feature; and
- Additional capabilities planned for release in 2013. Read more
The Food Institute reports that food inflation, including the impact of the severe drought in the Midwest, will cost a family of four $351.12 more in food spending in 2013 than in 2012—approximately $6.75 a week. Food-at-home spending will increase about $4.00 a week, and away-from-home spending by about $2.50, according to The Food Institute. These figures are only slightly more than the 2.5–3.5% increase projected by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) for all of this year. The cost is calculated using the USDA’s latest food price projections for 2013, which indicate prices for food-at-home will increase as much as 4.0% next year, with food away-from-home prices projected to rise as much as 3.5%. A breakdown by food category shows most of the increase in food-at-home purchases will be experienced at meat counters, where annual costs are seen rising about $44 next year for a family of four, and about $30 for a two-person household, according to The Food Institute’s estimates. Beef costs would account for nearly one-third of that increase. Read more
The U.S. Department of Energy has got its fingers in a lot of alternative-energy pies, from hydrogen vehicles to plug-ins. Today, in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the DOE has announced that it will reach a little deeper into 13 biofuel and feedstock improvement projects with a $41 million investment. We hope there are gloves involved in the "manure to ethanol" project. The details of the projects can be found in the press release below, but there are five that will "diversify the nation’s energy portfolio and replace the need for gasoline and diesel in vehicles" and eight that use "biomass genomics to improve promising biofuel feedstocks and drive more efficient, cost-effective energy production." Read more
Phosphorus is a vital nutrient for pig growth, but pigs do not always digest it well. Research conducted at the University of Illinois has determined how adding various levels of the enzyme phytase to the diet improves how pigs digest the phosphorus in four different feed ingredients. Improving phosphorus digestibility has positive implications for producers’ bottom lines as well as for the environment. "The majority of the phosphorus in plant feed ingredients is bound in phytate," said U of I animal sciences professor Hans Stein. “It is difficult for pigs to utilize that phosphorus because they cannot hydrolyze that phytate molecule. There is an exogenous enzyme called phytase that helps the pigs hydrolyze that phosphorus bond from phytate so the digestibility is increased.” Read more
Large amounts of nitrogen fertilizer lead to nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas, in the atmosphere. It’s summer. For many of us, summer is a time synonymous with fresh corn, one of the major field crops produced in the United States. In 2011, corn was planted on more than 92 million acres in the U.S., helping the nation continue its trend as the world’s largest exporter of the crop. Corn is a nitrogen-loving plant. To achieve desired production levels, most U.S. farmers apply synthetic nitrogen fertilizer to their fields every year. Once nitrogen fertilizer hits the ground, however, it’s hard to contain and is easily lost to groundwater, rivers, oceans and the atmosphere. "That’s not good for the crops, the farmers or the environment," says Phil Robertson, a scientist at Michigan State University and principal investigator at the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) Kellogg Biological Station (KBS) Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. KBS is one of 26 such NSF LTER sites across the United States and around the globe in ecosystems from forests to coral reefs. Read more
The severe drought in the Midwest has caused complete crop failure in some areas; in others, yields are reduced to the point that it is not economical to harvest the grain. Producers who are considering baling or chopping for silage have asked University of Illinois assistant professor Fabián Fernández how much nutrient would be removed if the stunted corn crop is taken out of the field. “The condition of the drought-affected corn crop is so varied that it would be difficult to establish a removal rate that represents every condition,” he said. To determine total nutrient removal, the amount of biomass and nutrient concentrations must first be determined. Fernández notes that doing so is difficult because some crops died while they were still at vegetative stages, others are dying with barren ears, and others are hanging on trying to fill the kernels. Read more
A new discovery should make the alternative fuel butanol more attractive to the biofuel industry. University of Illinois scientist Hao Feng has found a way around the bottleneck that has frustrated producers in the past and could significantly reduce the cost of the energy involved in making it as well. “The first challenge in butanol production is that at a certain concentration the fuel being created becomes toxic to the organism used to make it (Clostridium pasteurianum and other strains), and that toxicity limits the amount of fuel that can be made in one batch. The second issue is the high energy cost of removing butanol from the fermentation broth at the high concentrations used by the industry. We have solved both problems,” he said. In the study, funded by the Energy Biosciences Institute, Feng’s team successfully tested the use of a non-ionic surfactant, or co-polymer, to create small structures that capture and hold the butanol molecules. Read more
Nanoparticles synthesized from noble metals such as ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, silver (Ag), osmium, iridium, platinum, and gold (Au) are attracting increased attention by researchers around the world looking for advances in such fields as biomedicine and catalysts. Researchers from Argonne National Laboratory, the Illinois Institute of Technology, and the University of South Carolina working at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities at Argonne including the Advanced Photon Source (APS), have been successful in synthesizing and characterizing monodisperse gold-core silver-shell nanoparticles utilizing a bio-template that has potential as a water soluble catalyst for converting biomass such as dead trees, branches and tree stumps, yard clippings, wood chips, and even municipal solid waste into fuels. Read more
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) researchers have made significant progress in finding genetic resistance to two key cotton pests—the root-knot nematode and the reniform nematode. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) plant geneticist Johnie Jenkins and his colleagues in the agency’s Genetics and Precision Agriculture Research Unit in Mississippi State, Miss., developed genetic markers for the genes responsible for resistance to root-knot nematode in upland cotton. These genes, located on chromosomes 11 and 14, should help breeders develop new varieties of nematode-resistant cotton. Jenkins and his colleagues also found that resistance to reniform nematode in a wild Gossypium barbadense line is governed by more than one gene, and they have identified markers linked to these genes on chromosomes 21 and 18. Read more
An Agricultural Research Service scientist in Oxford, Mississippi, is working toward developing new herbicides by focusing on a molecular pathway that not only controls weeds in soybean fields, but might also have helped shape our nation’s history. Franck Dayan, a plant physiologist with the ARS Natural Products Utilization Research Unit in Oxford, is an expert on a class of weed killers known as “PPO herbicides,” which choke off the weed’s ability to make chlorophyll. His efforts are increasingly important because weeds are beginning to develop resistance to glyphosate, the world’s most widely used herbicide, and alternatives are needed. Read more
Our days of crying over spoiled milk could be over, thanks to Cornell food scientists. Milk undergoes heat treatment — pasteurization — to kill off microbes that can cause food spoilage and disease, but certain bacterial strains can survive this heat shock as spores and cause milk to curdle in storage. Researchers in the Milk Quality Improvement Program at Cornell’s College of Agriculture and Life Sciences have identified the predominant spore-forming bacteria in milk and their unique enzyme activity, knowledge that can now be used to protect the quality and shelf life of dairy products. Read more
Harvard scientists have developed a coating to prevent biofilms forming in food processing machinery and on surfaces by tricking bacteria into thinking there is nowhere for it to attach and grow. In a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), lead co-authors Joanna Aizenberg, Alexander Epstein and Tak-Sing Wong coated solid surfaces with an immobilized liquid film so bacteria cannot grip and grow together into biofilms. The technology, called SLIPS (Slippery-Liquid-Infused Porous Surfaces), creates a hybrid surface that is smooth and slippery due to its liquid layer. Biofilms are hard to remove pathogens that get stuck on machinery and other surfaces in manufacturing plants. Read more
A humble soil bacterium called Ralstonia eutropha has a natural tendency, whenever it is stressed, to stop growing and put all its energy into making complex carbon compounds. Now scientists at MIT have taught this microbe a new trick: They’ve tinkered with its genes to persuade it to make fuel — specifically, a kind of alcohol called isobutanol that can be directly substituted for, or blended with, gasoline. Christopher Brigham, a research scientist in MIT’s biology department who has been working to develop this bioengineered bacterium, is currently trying to get the organism to use a stream of carbon dioxide as its source of carbon, so that it could be used to make fuel out of emissions. Brigham is co-author of a paper on this research published this month in the journal Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. Brigham explains that in its natural state, when the microbe’s source of essential nutrients (such as nitrate or phosphate) is restricted, “it will go into carbon-storage mode,” essentially storing away food for later use when it senses that resources are limited. Read more
A gene that keeps switchgrass forever young could have far-reaching implications for the development of the plant as a biofuel crop, according to U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) scientists. Inserting a specific gene called "corngrass" from corn into switchgrass essentially keeps the perennial grass in its juvenile form—a plant that doesn’t flower, doesn’t produce seeds, and doesn’t have a dormant growth phase. Because of these changes, the sugars making up the plant starch are more readily available for conversion into cellulosic ethanol. According to Agricultural Research Service (ARS) geneticist Sarah Hake, the starch in these transgenic plants stays inside the stem because it isn’t needed elsewhere for nourishing flower buds and blossoms. As a result, starch levels can increase as much as 250 percent, which increases the sugars that can be fermented into ethanol. Read more
The introduction of ultra-low sulfur fuel for on-road diesel in 2006-’07 brought unexpected consequences for biodiesel blending. Refiners began hydrotreating diesel fuel to reduce sulfur to 15 parts per million and, in doing so, changed the solubility characteristics of diesel fuel by removing aromatics and other compounds. “Aromatic compounds are good at making relatively polar things soluble,” says Robert McCormick, a principal engineer at National Renewable Energy Labs. “So when you take them out, that could become an issue.” Sporadic issues with biodiesel blends clogging filters, both vehicle and dispenser, above the cloud point with on-spec B100 arose, recounts Steve Howell, National Biodiesel Board technical director. In general, clogged filters were found to have high levels of sterol gluccosides and saturated monoglycerides. “That prompted the development of the cold soak filtration test,” Howell says, “as a performance test on B100 to pick up any minor biodiesel components that were precipitating out in the field that were not showing up in the cloud point test.” A performance test was desired over measurement of individual components since more than one or two minor components were found on the sampled filters. Read more
In California, the Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) today announced the execution of the long-term Development Agreement enabling the 10-15 year major biofuel/bioenergy project between CERT, BioJet, and Tartoosh Environmental. The project, tagged “Thunderbird”, is a multi-feedstock, multi-technology set of projects anticipated to build out in excess of $3 billion. This initiative is seen to create significant economic activity, jobs, and capital investment opportunities in the field of renewables.
The goals of the Thunderbird project are to develop and build biofuel and bioenergy infrastructure on Native American lands which can
• Utilize 750,000+ acres of agricultural projects for use as biofuel feedstock with co-products used as animal feed.
• Utilize existing bioenergy feedstocks. Example 5 million board feet of damaged existing timber.
• Utilize existing alternative fuel feedstocks such as natural gas. Example 5 trillion cubic feet for GTL conversion to synthetic jet fuel and diesel.
• Utilize Algae feedstocks as they become technically and economically feasible to supplement biofuel feedstock base.
• Refine/convert feedstocks to approximately 250 million gallons annually of renewable (bio) jet fuel and diesel and approximately 300 million gallons of synthetic jet or diesel.
• These biofuel/synthetic fuel goals would require approximately 10 Biorefinery plants.
• Convert waste biomass to high value energy products such as C5 molasses to be used in food production, green power, ethanol, or biochemicals and lignin to supplement coal in power and heat generation
• These biomass conversion projects would require approximately 5 waste-to-energy plants.
• Create Integrated Renewable Energy Parks where possible utilizing multiple renewable energy sources. Read more
Putting the water-use-efficient and turbo-charged photosynthesis from plants such as agave into woody biomass plants such as poplar can hedge against predicted long-term increases in temperatures and reduced precipitation. It can also provide dedicated energy crops suitable for establishment on marginal land as a source of renewable biomass. A five-year, multi-institutional $14.3 million United States Department of Energy grant to explore the genetic mechanisms of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and drought tolerance in desert-adapted plants was awarded to a team of researchers including John Cushman, a biochemistry professor at the University of Nevada, Reno; Xiaohan Yang at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); James Hartwell at the University of Liverpool, UK; and Anne Borland at Newcastle University, UK and ORNL. They aim to apply this knowledge to biofuel crops. The team will develop novel technologies to redesign bioenergy crops to grow on economically marginal agricultural lands and produce yields of biomass that can readily be converted to biofuels. The development of water-use efficient, fast-growing trees such as poplar for such sites will also help reduce competition with food crops for usable farmland. Read more
“How many calories does an apple contain? How much protein is found in yoghurt? Which fruit contains the most vitamin C, oranges or black currants?” The French Agency for Food, Environmental and
Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES) has updated a massive database with answers to these and 100s of other nutritional
questions. The French Observatory of Food Quality (CIQUAL-OQALI) is one the largest of its kind and contains calorie count and the fat, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin and mineral content for 1440 foods. Read more
The food observatory was created by the modernization act of agriculture and fisheries in July 2010. Its mission is to inform economic actors and public authorities on the evolution of supply and consumption of food (Article L.230-3 of the rural and maritime fishing Code). Read more (French article)
France said Wednesday it would reconsider its plans to further develop the use of biofuel, once seen as a potential source of cheap alternative energy but now blamed for soaring food prices. France’s targets for incorporating biofuel elements into traditional fuel, "which could result in large quantities of agricultural products being diverted from food use, should be put up for discussion," Agriculture Minister Stephane Le Foll said. He made the comment in a report on the new government’s action plan for agriculture. That plan, presented Wednesday to the cabinet, calls for a 7% cap on the incorporation into traditional fuel of so-called first generation biofuel, which is made from the sugars and oils found in arable crops. Read more
Banana has revealed the secrets of its 520 million bases. Two French research organizations, CIRAD and CEA-Genoscope, with funding from the National Research Agency (ANR), have just finished, in two years, sequencing the species Musa acuminata which is a component in every edible variety (dessert and cooking bananas). This work is a huge step towards understanding the genetics of and improving banana varieties, and was done within the framework of the Global Musa Genomics Consortium. The results will be published on line on Wednesday 11 July 2012 in the prestigious scientific journal Nature . Read more
The French agency responsible for policing the country’s food supplements market told NutraIngredients today the controversial stimulant DMAA has been prioritised by its 2500 agents in a nationwide crackdown. The move comes as Australia’s Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) today confirmed that DMAA has been officially shifted to its poisons list. A French Directorate General of Competition, Consumption and Fraud Repression (DGCCRF) spokesperson said the 2500 agents are, “working on the DMAA case right now.” A further 70 agents are scouring online retailers in search of predominantly pre-workout products containing DMAA – a stimulant regulators around the world are acting against over health and sourcing concerns. Read more
The French food safety system: A strict separation between risk assessment and management - Aug 13th
France has a unique food safety system that achieves a complete separation between risk assessment (by ANSES, the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety) and risk management (by the Ministry of Agriculture, the French Directorate General for Food (DGAL) for food of animal origin, and by the Ministry of Economics, the French Directorate General for Consumption, Competition, and Fraud (DGCCRF) for food of non-animal origin). Read more
Many organizations give you the opportunity to learn and improve your mind about agriculture and food science. Please find below some of website about these:
• For the United States information
http://www.ch.doe.gov/ : You will find a new revue about Innovation, Security and Science. You will find an interview to know how the Office of Science is working towards greater energy security.
http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome : The USDA releases some articles mainly about the drought, and the healthier school menu.
http://www.bulletins-electroniques.com/ : News from the United States covering advancements in science and technology (French articles).
• For France information
http://www.international.inra.fr/ : The French National Institute for Agricultural Research releases its annual report for 2011.
http://www.bulletins-electroniques.com/ : News from France on advancements in science and technology (French articles).
http://www.frenchfoodintheus.org/ : French food safety system, organic wine, food aid are some of the articles this month.
http://www.efsa.europa.eu/ : You will find an evaluation about the high quality of scientific outputs from EFSA.
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Dernière modification : 26/09/2012top of the page